Facebook推免费网络 让印度人买账不容易

发布日期:2022-06-23 23:40

本文摘要:MUMBAI, India — If Mark Zuckerberg hopes to deliver on his vision of bringing the Internet to the four billion people who lack it, the Facebook chief will first need to make his plan more appealing to salesmen like Shoaib Khan.印度孟买——倘若马克·扎


MUMBAI, India — If Mark Zuckerberg hopes to deliver on his vision of bringing the Internet to the four billion people who lack it, the Facebook chief will first need to make his plan more appealing to salesmen like Shoaib Khan.印度孟买——倘若马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)想要构建给全球40亿上没法网的民众带上去互联网的愿景,那这位Facebook的首席执行官首先要做到的,是让自己的计划在绍义卜·汗(Shoaib Khan)这样的摊贩眼中变得更加有吸引力。Mr. Khan’s perfume and cellphone shop in one of this city’s many slums recently displayed a large blue banner advertising Mr. Zuckerberg’s project, called Internet.org, in the back. Another sign for the free package of Internet services — offered in India through the cellphone carrier Reliance Communications — was posted prominently in front.汗的香水和手机店进在城中的贫民窟里,不久前悬挂了一条蓝色的大横幅,给扎克伯格的Internet.org项目做广告。前面醒目的地方还贴满另一张宣传免费互联网服务的标牌,而这一服务由印度手机运营商信实通信(Reliance Communications)获取。But when a reporter asked Mr. Khan about his experience with Internet.org, he had no idea what it was. After the program was explained to him, he quickly dismissed it.不过,当记者告知汗用于Internet.org的感觉时,他却并不知道这究竟是什么。

听过关于这一项目的说明后,他迅速就不予了驳斥。“The Reliance connection is very patchy,” said Mr. Khan, shaking his head. “I would really have to sell the customer on it.”“信实的信号时断时续,”汗摇着头说道。“我得费相当大劲向顾客促销。”Facebook’s rocky experience since it brought Internet.org to India in February shows that good intentions and technological savvy are not enough to achieve a noble goal like universal Internet access.自从Facebook今年2月在印度发售Internet.org项目以来,事情展开得并不成功。

此事指出,幸福的心愿和运用技术的能力本身并足以达成协议全民联网这样的高尚目标。The skepticism of phone sellers like Mr. Khan and the weaknesses of Facebook’s Indian partner are just two of the problems that have bedeviled Mr. Zuckerberg’s project so far.让恰克伯克的项目陷于泥潭的原因很多,而汗这样的手机卖家的猜测态度,以及Facebook在印度的合作伙伴的严重不足,不过是其中一二。

Internet.org’s free services — which include news articles, health and job information, and a text-only version of Facebook — are deliberately stripped down to minimize data usage and the cost to the phone company. Facebook says the primary goal is to show people what the Internet is all about. But many Indians want more and complain that, contrary to its altruistic claims, the project is simply a way to get them onto Facebook and sign up for paid plans from Reliance.Internet.org获取的免费网络服务——还包括新闻文章、身体健康和聘用信息,以及纯文字版的Facebook——被精心削减过,其数据使用量和通信公司的成本都降至了低于。Facebook回应,其主要目标是向人们展出互联网是什么。

但很多印度人想的好比这些,并责怪这个项目并不像它所声称的那么无私,而只是更有他们上Facebook以及和信实通信投收费协议的一种方法。Internet activists have also attacked Facebook for cherry-picking partners to include in its walled garden rather than simply offering a small amount of free access to the whole Internet. Their concerns have struck a chord with the Indian government, which is considering new rules that would govern such free services.互联网活动人士也批评Facebook是挑选出一些合作伙伴转入其“堵塞花园”,而非少量获取可以体验整个互联网的机会。他们的忧虑引发了印度政府的回响,后者正在考虑到制订对这类免费服务展开管理的新制度。

Mr. Zuckerberg declined several requests to discuss Internet.org. But he remains passionate about his crusade. “Internet access needs to be treated as an important enabler of human rights and human potential,” he told the United Nations last month.扎克伯格多次拒绝接受就Internet.org置评。但他对自己这场神圣运动仍然充满著激情。“连进互联网应当被作为构建人权和人的创造力的最重要工具来对待,”上个月他曾如此对联合国回应。

The Internet.org suite, rebranded last month as Free Basics, is now in 25 countries, from Indonesia to Panama. Facebook is investing heavily in other parts of the project, including experiments to deliver cheap Wi-Fi to remote villages and to beam Internet service from high-flying drones.上个月改名为“免费基础版”(Free Basics)的Internet.org套餐服务,目前早已在还包括印度尼西亚和巴拿马在内的25个国家发售。Facebook正在对这个项目的其他部分展开大力投资,还包括给边远山村获取廉价Wi-Fi,和通过在高空飞行中的无人机发送到互联网信号的实验。

Mr. Zuckerberg is also determined to win over the Indian public. Last month, he hosted a live-streamed chat with India’s prime minister, Narendra Modi, from Facebook’s Silicon Valley headquarters. And this week, Mr. Zuckerberg will be in New Delhi, where he will take questions from some of Facebook’s 130 million Indian users.扎克伯格还下定决心要夺得印度公众的反对。上个月,他和印度总理纳伦德拉·莫迪(Narendra Modi)在Facebook坐落于硅谷的总部展开了一场现场直播的对谈。

本周,扎克伯格将在新德里问Facebook1.3亿印度用户中的一些人明确提出的问题。The magnitude of the task ahead was apparent during a reporter’s visit in August to Dharavi, home to as many as a million of Mumbai’s poor.8月份在居住于着多达100万孟买穷人的达拉维专访期间,记者找到,前面的路似乎十分艰难。Several billboards advertised Freenet, Reliance’s version of Internet.org. But in the neighborhood’s narrow alleys, where rivulets of raw sewage competed with sandaled feet, there was little evidence that anyone had taken notice在那里,有好几个广告板上都安着Freenet的广告,后者是信实版本的Internet.org。但是在达拉维那围观穿拖鞋的人、污水横流的狭小小巷里,很难讲有什么人注意到了这些广告。

A conversation with a dozen cellphone users at a tea shop uncovered no one who had heard of Freenet or Internet.org, but plenty of complaints about Reliance’s sluggish data network and poor customer service compared to the market leaders, Airtel and Vodafone.在一间茶馆里和十几名手机用户聊天后,记者找到没有人听闻过Freenet或Internet.org,但很多人责怪,比起通信市场的领军企业Airtel和沃达丰(Vodafone),信实的数据网络十分快,用户服务也很差。At Yahoo Mobilewala, a nearby phone shop named in honor of the American Internet company, the owner Rizwan Khan, offered service from every major carrier. But his stack of Reliance chips — each in a blue Freenet envelope that said “Go free Facebook” — was gathering dust in its display case.在附近一个以雅虎这家互联网公司命名的手机店雅虎Mobilewala里,店主里兹万·汗(Rizwan Khan)获取来自各大通信商的产品。

但他那填放在展示柜里的信实芯片——每一个都装有在蓝色的Freenet 纸条里,上面写出着“享用免费Facebook”——正在积尘。In India, most cellular service is prepaid. Customers typically buy or refill a special chip, known as a SIM card, often loading it with a dollar’s worth of data or calls at a time. Phone-card vendors are key advisers, educating people about all their options.在印度,大多数移动通讯服务都是预付费。用户往往要出售一种取名为SIM卡的类似芯片,或给它充值,他们往往一次差使价值1美元的数据流量或通话时长。

手机卡商贩是引荐这类卡的关键人物,不会给人们讲解各种选项。“New customers don’t come looking for Freenet,” Mr. Khan said, who is no relation to Shoaib Khan. Even if Reliance’s network were good, he said, the package excludes WhatsApp, a popular messaging app owned by Facebook, and users must pay to see the photos in their Facebook feeds. “If you have to pay for data, what’s the point of calling it free?” he said.“新的顾客是会冲着Freenet卡来的,”汗说道,他与前文提及的绍义卜·汗没关系。他说道,就算信实的网络知道不俗,它获取的套餐中也没Facebook公司旗下的热门通讯软件WhatsApp,而且用户必需收费才能看见自己订阅者的Facebook信息中的照片。


“如果用户必需为数据收费,干嘛还要说道是免费?”他说道。Phone-card sellers also tend to push whatever makes them the most money. Mr. Khan noted that another carrier had recently awarded him his choice of a Hero motorcycle or 45,000 rupees — nearly $700 — for signing up 1,000 customers. Reliance offered nothing similar.手机卡卖家也偏向于希望人们出售能让他们赚到更加多钱的卡,不管它是哪个公司的。汗认为,因为投了1000个用户,另一家通信商最近给他获取了奖励,他可以自由选择要一辆英雄牌摩托车或4.5万卢比(约合4450人民币)。

信实没类似于的奖励措施。In more than two dozen interviews in poor neighborhoods of Mumbai, a reporter found several people who had tried Internet.org but only one who used it regularly — a 23-year-old man who said he used the free version of Facebook Messenger on the app to chat with friends when he ran out of money on his prepaid account.在孟买的穷人社区展开的20多个专访中,记者找到有好几个人曾试用过Internet.org,但只有一个人会常常用于它,这名23岁的男子回应,当他的预付费账户里的钱用光之后,他不会用于免费版本的Facebook Messenger和朋友聊天。Chris Daniels, the Facebook executive who leads Internet.org, said the company is primarily trying to reach people who are completely new to the Internet.负责管理Internet.org项目的Facebook副总裁克里斯·丹尼尔斯(Chris Daniels)回应,该公司主要是想要看清对互联网一无所知的人群。

In an interview last week, Mr. Daniels said about a million people had been introduced to the Internet in India because of the program. After their first 30 days online, he said, about 40 percent of them became paying data customers, 5 percent stuck with only free services and the rest left.丹尼尔斯上周拒绝接受专访时回应,在印度,约100万人因为这个项目而认识到互联网。他回应,在首次用于了30天后,约40%的人会沦为收费数据客户,5%的人之后用于免费服务,其他人不会退出用于。“This is a program that is working to bring people online, and working incredibly well.” Mr. Daniels said. “Connectivity is something that improves people’s lives. It’s an enabler for people to be able to help themselves find jobs, help themselves improve their health situation, improve their education for themselves and their children.”“这是一个希望协助人们网际网路的项目,效果十分好。


这能协助他们去找工作,协助他们提高健康状况,提升他们自身及其子女的教育水平。Gurdeep Singh, the chief executive of Reliance’s consumer business, defended the quality of his company’s network, but acknowledged that it needed to do more to raise awareness of Freenet and persuade retailers to promote it.信实通信公司消费业务首席执行官哥迪普·辛格(Gurdeep Singh)为该公司网络质量做到了反驳,但他否认必须采行更加多措施提高Freenet的认知度,劝说零售商展开促销。“This is a slow process,” he said in an interview at the company’s sprawling campus in Navi Mumbai, a few miles from Dharavi. “We are fighting this huge battle against digital illiteracy.”“这是一个较慢的过程,”他在该公司坐落于新的孟买的可观园区拒绝接受专访时说。

“我们正在展开一场避免数码文盲的大战。”新的孟买距离达拉维只有几英里近。According to Reliance research, 36 percent of phone-card sellers don’t have a phone capable of Internet access, which makes them poor ambassadors for the concept.根据信实通信公司的研究,36%的电话卡销售商没需要网际网路的手机,因此,他们无法很好地推展这一理念。

But Mr. Singh said Reliance was committed to Freenet, which was initially limited to seven states, and planned to offer it nationally soon. “India is at the stage where everyone must get access to the Internet,” he said.但辛格回应,信实通信公司致力于推展Freenet,计划迅速在全国范围内获取服务,该服务最初仅限于七个邦。他说道,“印度还正处于让每个人取得网际网路途径的阶段。”While that is a goal shared by many, Facebook’s approach has run into a buzzsaw of criticism from Internet advocates here, who see it as an attempt by the world’s largest social network to become the gatekeeper to the Internet for a new generation of users.虽然很多公司都以此为目标,但Facebook的方式遭印度互联网拥护者的激烈抨击,他们指出这是世界仅次于的社交媒体为了沦为新一代网络用户的互联网守门人而采行的措施。

“On the open Internet, everyone is equal,” said Nikhil Pahwa, editor and publisher of MediaNama, an Indian news site, who has vociferously opposed Internet.org. “On Internet.org, Facebook is the kingmaker.”“在对外开放的互联网,人人平等,”印度新闻网站MediaNama的总编和出版发行人尼克希尔·帕瓦(Nikhil Pahwa)说道。“在Internet.org上,Facebook就是迎立国王的幕后主使。”帕瓦反感赞成该网站。

Mr. Pahwa helped organize a campaign called Save the Internet, which rallied a million Indians to press regulators to stop Internet.org and establish rules protecting net neutrality. That principle, also a subject of intense debate in the United States and Europe, says that Internet access providers should give customers equal access to all content.帕瓦参予的组织了一场取名为“解救互联网”的运动,该运动早已开会了100万名印度人,向监管机构施加压力,拒绝它重开Internet.org,制订维护网络中立性的规定。这一原则意味著互联网终端提供商应当为客户获取采访所有内容的公平机会。

该原则也在美国和欧洲引起了白热化争辩。The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India is still mulling potential regulations. In a recent interview, however, the agency’s chairman, Ram Sewak Sharma, was skeptical of Internet.org. “Maybe they have wonderful objectives, but the way it is being implemented, that’s not really appropriate,” he said.印度电信管理局(The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)仍在考虑到有可能制订的规定。但最近拒绝接受专访时,该局局长拉姆·里斯瓦克·夏尔马(Ram Sewak Sharma)对Internet.org回应猜测。他说道,“也许他们的目标很幸福,但他们实施目标的方式觉得是不合理。

”Mr. Daniels said Facebook had been listening to all the criticism and had made many changes to Internet.org, including opening it to other companies that wanted to offer free services on the platform. “We always appreciate feedback, in whatever form it comes,” he said.丹尼尔斯回应,Facebook仍然聆听所有抨击,而且对Internet.org作出了很多调整,还包括向其他期望在该平台获取免费服务的公司对外开放。他说道,“我们仍然很感激各种对系统,无论是什么形式的对系统。